The Cycad Pages
Juliana Medeiros and Dennis Stevenson

Figure 21


  1. Introduction
  2. Symbiosis
    1. What is symbiosis?
    2. Nature of the Cycad/Cyanobacteria Symbiosis
    3. Costs and Benefits of the Symbiosis
  3. Cycad Roots
    1. Normal root anatomy and morphology
    2. Coralloid root development
    3. Other Organisms Present in Cycad Roots
  4. Cyanobacteria
    1. General physiology
    2. Cyanobacteria in symbiosis with Cycads
    3. Specificity and Diversity
  5. Nitrogen fixation
    1. Global nitrogen economy
    2. Physiology of nitrogen fixation
    3. Nitrogen fixation in the Cyanobacteria/Cycad symbiosis
    4. Assimilation of fixed nitrogen
  6. Colonization of Cycad Coralloid roots by Cyanobacteria
    1. Recognition between partners
    2. Mode of colonization
    3. Maintenance
  7. Applications
  8. Future Areas of Study
  9. References and Further Reading
  10. Photo Gallery

The Cycad Pages

© 1998-2012 Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney
Written and maintained by Ken Hill 1998-2010
Maintained by Leonie Stanberg and Dennis Stevenson 2010-2012
This site is currently not being maintained